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Sleep Disorders Associated With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3

      Abstract

      Background

      Sleep problems affect 30% to 80% of patients with mild traumatic brain injury. We assessed the prevalence of sleep disorders after mild traumatic brain injury and its correlation with other symptoms.

      Methods and Materials

      Individuals with mild traumatic brain injury were assessed at the New York University Concussion Center during 2013-2014 with the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool, third edition, data following mild traumatic brain injury. The relationship between sleep problems (drowsiness, difficulty falling asleep, fatigue or low energy), psychiatric symptoms (sadness, nervousness or anxiousness), headache, and dizziness were analyzed by Spearman correlation and logistic regression using moderate to severe versus none to mild categorization.

      Results

      Ninety-three patients were retrospectively considered. The most common injury causes were falls (34.4%) and motor vehicle accidents (21.5%). There was a positive correlation between dizziness, headache, psychiatric problems (sadness, anxiety, irritability), and sleep problems (fatigue, drowsiness, and difficulty falling asleep) (P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed a significant association between moderate to severe psychiatric symptoms and moderate to severe sleep symptoms (P < 0.05). Sleep symptoms became more severe with increased time interval from mild traumatic brain injury to Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 administration (odds ratio = 1.005, 1.006, and 1.008, P < 0.05). There was significant correlation between motor vehicle accident and drowsiness and difficulty falling asleep (P < 0.05). Medications given in the emergency department had a positive correlation with drowsiness (P < 0.05).

      Conclusions

      Individuals who report moderate to severe headache, dizziness, and psychiatric symptoms have a higher likelihood of reporting moderate to severe sleep disorders following mild traumatic brain injury and should be counseled and initiated with early interventions.

      Keywords

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