Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Pediatric Neurology
- Acute necrotizing encephalopathy.in: Yamanouchi H. Acute Encephalopathy and Encephalitis in Infancy and Its Related Disorders. 1st ed. Elsevier, St Louis, MO2017: 87-92
- Outcome of acute necrotizing encephalopathy in relation to treatment with corticosteroids and gammaglobulin.Brain Dev. 2009; 31: 221-227
- A severity score for acute necrotizing encephalopathy.Brain Dev. 2015; 37: 322-327
- Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: correlation of MR findings and clinical outcome.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006; 27: 1919-1923
- Predictive value of serum interleukin-6 level in influenza virus-associated encephalopathy.Neurology. 2001; 57: 295-299
- Tocilizumab in autoimmune encephalitis refractory to rituximab: an institutional cohort study.Neurotherapeutics. 2016; 13: 824-832
- Determinants of outcomes following acute child encephalopathy and encephalitis: pivotal effect of early and delayed cooling.Arch Dis Child. 2011; 96: 936-941
- Tocilizumab treatment for new onset refractory status epilepticus.Ann Neurol. 2018; 84: 940-945
- Tocilizumab in refractory autoimmune encephalitis: a series of pediatric cases.Pediatr Neurol. 2018; 86: 66-68
- Distinct cytokine patterns may regulate the severity of neonatal asphyxia-an observational study.J Neuroinflammation. 2017; 14: 244
- Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood in association with activation of interleukin-6 after traumatic brain injury: influence of hypothermic therapy.J Neurotrauma. 2004; 21: 1706-1711
- Favorable outcomes in acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child treated with hypothermia.Pediatr Neurol. 2012; 46: 387-389
- Two newly proposed infectious encephalitis/encephalopathy syndromes.Brain Dev. 2009; 31: 521-528
- Interleukin-6, a major cytokine in the central nervous system.Int J Biol Sci. 2012; 8: 1254-1266
- IL-6-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis provoked by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.Int Immunol. 1998; 10: 703-708
- B cell depletion therapy ameliorates autoimmune disease through ablation of IL-6–producing B cells.J Exp Med. 2012; 209: 1001-1010
- Specific HLA genotypes confer susceptibility to acute necrotizing encephalopathy.Genes Immun. 2016; 17: 367-369
- Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; : Cd008965
Ethics review and consent: All three patients were enrolled in the Paediatric Autoimmune Epilepsy, Demyelination and Encephalitis Study (PAEDES, CIRB Ref no 2015/2159), an ongoing observational clinical study of children with immune brain disease. Parents of the three children consented to the off-label use of intravenous tocilizumab for immune encephalopathy/encephalitis.
Conflict of interest and source of funding statement: The authors declare no conflict of interest or financial disclosures concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this article.
Author contributions: All authors were involved in patient assessments and data collection. J.C.K. prepared the first draft; A.M. and J.K. contributed to the sections of the manuscript; T.T. was supervising/lead author and conceptualized the treatment strategy. All authors critically reviewed and approved the final manuscript.